A study published in the Nicotine & Tobacco Research revealed shifts in cigarette marketing from 1975 to 2019. Cigarette marketing expenditures peaked at $21.1 billion in 2003 and have shifted from advertising to retail spending, according to a new study by ASPiRE’s Haijing Ma, Alexandria Reimold, and Kurt Ribisl. They found spending increased from 1975 to 2003, then declined until 2010, and remained steady at about $9 billion from 2010 through 2019. Advertising dominated spending before 2003. Since then, retail spending has increased while all other expenditures decreased. As of 2019, retail spending made up 98% of cigarette marketing expenditures. Within retail spending, emphasis has shifted from promotional allowances, coupons, and retail-value-added bonuses before 2003 to price discounts in years since. The authors recommend restrictions on retail price promotions and other non-tax strategies to counter industry efforts. Read the paper.